Geoscientists at the University of Texas at Dallas are studying how tectonic collisions created gemstones such as jade and ruby. Jadeite jade is created through subduction, when continental and oceanic tectonic plates collide. It is found in abundance in Myanmar and Guatemala. Ruby occurs in the collision of two continents, and is found across the mountains of central Asia. "Not all subduction zones get jade, and not all continental collisions get ruby. The question is: Are these special conditions that are really limited in time?" said proposal author Robert Stern.
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