The number of new cases of diabetes in the US declined to 1.4 million in 2014 from 1.7 million in 2008, according to a report from the CDC. The report stated that an improvement in healthy eating habits, a decline in the amount of soda drank since the late 1990s and a decrease in the average number of daily calories consumed by adults and children, as well as an increase in physical activity and the flattened rates of obesity, may have contributed to the decline in new diabetes cases.
A study in Diabetes Care showed men with type 2 diabetes who had low testosterone levels reduced their total body fat by 3 kilograms and increased their muscle mass by the same amount after receiving a testosterone injection every week for 24 weeks, compared with those on placebo. The findings, based on 94 men with type 2 diabetes, also revealed an increase in insulin sensitivity and the expression of major genes responsible for insulin signaling and a significant reduction in fasting glucose levels by 12 milligrams per deciliter among those on testosterone therapy.
Patients with type 2 diabetes reduced their A1C levels by -0.82% 26 weeks after receiving basal insulin peglispro, which was maintained at 52 weeks, compared with a -0.29% reduction among those on insulin glargine, researchers reported in Diabetes Care. The findings, based on 466 type 2 diabetes patients, also showed those on BIL had a 60% lower nocturnal hypoglycemia and a lower glucose variability than those on insulin glargine.
Researchers studied the MRI scans of 506 overweight and obese patients who either had mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis or known risks for the disease and found those who had a body weight reduction of more than 10% had a slower degeneration of their knee cartilage. The findings were presented at the Radiological Society of North America meeting.
Children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fell short of recommendations for physical activity levels, vitamins and minerals, as did many obese children without NAFLD, according to a UK study in Nutrients. Researchers found children with NAFLD were more likely to show restrained eating behaviors and to engage in exercise than obese children without liver disease.
Research has shown that optimal nurse staffing is associated with improved clinical outcomes and economic benefits, according to an Avalere Health report for the American Nurses Association. "Nurses on the front lines are in the best position to determine the staffing needed for safe and equitable, quality care, but they consistently tell us they must fight for optimal nurse staffing. This whitepaper is our way of providing evidence to support the need for changes in nurse staffing across all healthcare settings," ANA President Pamela Cipriano said.
Allegheny Health Network's Healthcare@Home program in Pennsylvania sends nurses to visit newly discharged patients at home to check their condition and help determine if other services, such as outpatient rehabilitation, are needed. Officials estimate the program has saved about $5 million since it launched last year by reducing 30-day hospital readmissions, and it has reduced readmissions for home care patients from 19% to 14%.
The biggest hurdle in finding a cure for Alzheimer's disease is finding enough volunteers for studies, said Michelle Papka, who founded and directs The Cognitive and Research Center of New Jersey. She said a number of factors contribute to the problem, including the need to get patients diagnosed early enough to participate in long-term studies. "By the time a person has clinical symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, these plaques and tangles (that build up in the brain of an Alzheimer’s patient) have been in the brain for decades," Papka said.
Good nutrition can play a role in helping people who have symptoms of depression, according to registered dietitian LeeAnn Weintraub. Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to depression, while foods high in omega-3 fatty acids may help support brain function and mood, Weintraub said. She recommended eating a healthy whole-food diet, controlling portions and treats, and avoiding alcohol, which is a depressant.
Being fit as a young adult may reduce a person's risk of heart disease and death later in life, according to a study that followed adults ages 18 to 30 for almost 27 years. Researchers reported in JAMA Internal Medicine that they used treadmill tests of increasing difficulty and found a 15% lower risk of death and 12% lower risk of heart-related death over the study period for each additional minute a participant could stay on the treadmill.
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