Habitats at San Diego and other zoos are much more realistic than they were decades ago, as keepers create environments that stimulate animals' natural instincts. Enrichment not only keeps the animals' brains sharp, it plays a role in breeding and might boost zoos' and aquariums' species conservation efforts.
Attending the recent Iowa Veterinary Medical Association conference highlighted for veterinarian Jennifer Ewoldt how far the field has advanced since she was in veterinary school. These include new treatments for cancer that extend longevity, drugs for humans that have been found to work for animals, new molecular tests help diagnose diseases, and advances in the management of chronic kidney and liver disease, Dr. Ewoldt writes.
Swedish researchers evaluated data on 2,699,334 patients with and without type 2 diabetes and found a 47% relative risk reduction of hospitalization for aortic dissection and a 28% relative risk reduction of hospitalization for aortic aneurysm among those with diabetes, compared with control subjects. The findings in the Journal of the American Heart Association revealed that patients with type 2 diabetes also had 12% lower adjusted mortality rates after hospitalization for aortic aneurysm than controls.
Patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated canagliflozin treatment had a lower rate of heart failure events and a lower risk for hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, hemorrhagic stroke or ischemic stroke, compared with those who received a DPP-4 inhibitor, sulfonylurea or GLP-1 receptor agonist, according to a study in The BMJ. Researchers used a cohort of 55,560 adult diabetes patients and found that the canagliflozin group had a lower number of composite cardiovascular endpoint events than the DPP-4 inhibitor and sulfonylurea groups, but had a higher rate than the GLP-1 receptor agonist group.
A study presented at the Advanced Technologies and Treatments for Diabetes conference showed that type 1 diabetes patients who used the t:slim X2 Insulin Pump with Basal-IQ technology, a predictive low glucose suspend feature, experienced a significant reduction in hypoglycemic events, an improved time in range and reported a high level of confidence in using the device, compared with those who used a standard continuous glucose monitoring-integrated t:slim X2 pump that was not fitted with the automated insulin suspension. Researchers included 103 patients, ages 6 to 72, in the PROLOG trial.
Research in the European Respiratory Journal found the use of short-acting asthma medications among women led to fecundability odds ratios 15% lower than for women who did not have asthma. The effect was not seen among women who took inhaled corticosteroids plus a long-acting agonist or women who used to have asthma.
Research published in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report showed lower overall childhood obesity rates in households where parents had a college education, compared with households where parents had less education. Researchers said the link between child obesity rates and income differed by race and gender.
Older adults with or without mild cognitive impairment who had better cardiorespiratory fitness based on elevated VO2 max scores had less white-fiber deterioration in their brains, with white matter degradation associated with reduced executive functioning among those with MCI, according to a study in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. The findings suggest that regular exercise to maintain or improve cardiorespiratory fitness in old age may help protect against cognitive decline and dementia, researchers wrote.
Older patients may avoid eating calcium-rich foods or taking supplements for bone health and osteoporosis because they are lactose intolerant or have heart disease, diabetes or other health issues, writes registered dietitian nutritionist Beth Kitchin. Research shows all foods can fit into a diet for these patients and dietitians can help create an evidence-based calcium treatment plan that fits their lifestyle and needs, Kitchin said.
Nutrition experts said some superfoods can be expensive, difficult to find and over-hyped, and people may benefit more from eating a variety of regular healthy foods. Registered dietitian nutritionist Amanda Barnes said superfoods can be highly processed and consumers may be able to find the same substances in foods more commonly available at the grocery store.
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