Greater food variety and dietary diversity were linked to higher annual BMI increases in low-income preschool children, researchers reported in Pediatrics. Researchers said the BMI changes were small but stood out because they were unexpected, and added the data are not sufficient to support making dietary guideline changes.
Pittsburgh should be able to take in 500 Syrian refugees this year as social service providers work hard to help them with housing and employment. Different agencies described how they are helping Syrian refugees during a Thursday forum sponsored by the Southwest Pennsylvania division of the National Association of Social Workers. "It's not the city government that does this work," Mayor Bill Peduto said. "It's the agencies."
Emerging diseases such as the chikungunya and Zika viruses threaten the US blood supply, but the Intercept system, approved by the FDA to inactivate known and unknown pathogens in plasma and platelet products, is a potent weapon for protecting public health. The approach may be more practical than continuing to develop new tests after pathogenic threats emerge, but the system is not perfect: Bacterial spores are immune, and it does not work with red blood cells. Brazil has documented at least one case of Zika virus spreading via blood products.
A Japanese study in the Journal of Diabetes Complications showed older patients with type 1 diabetes had higher odds ratios for diabetes complications -- such as retinopathy, neuropathy and end-stage renal disease -- if they had moderate or severe depression. Researchers used a cohort of 4,283 diabetes patients at least 65 years old and found a significant increase in odds ratios for diabetic complications with higher Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores.
People who were less physically fit at age 40 had a greater degree of brain shrinkage 20 years later than those who were more physically fit, researchers reported in the journal Neurology. Researchers evaluated almost 1,100 participants who didn't have heart disease or dementia and found those with higher blood pressure, greater increase in heart rate during exercise or a lower estimated VO2 max during exercise as a 40-year-old had greater shrinkage in their brains 20 years later.
Swedish researchers found that healthy, middle-aged participants had improved metabolisms for up to 14 hours, decreased blood glucose and insulin levels, and increased insulin sensitivity after eating barley kernel-based bread at breakfast, lunch and dinner for three consecutive days. The findings in the British Journal of Nutrition, based on 20 participants, showed that barley plays a role in stimulating gut hormones involved in appetite and insulin regulation, researchers said.
A team approach to managing hypertension that included nurses, physicians and pharmacists was associated with increased rates of blood pressure control and reduced numbers of patients with stage 2 hypertension, according to a study in the Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. University of Rochester Medical Center researchers said that working as a team rather than one-on-one with patients made it easier to cover more issues and address obstacles to treatment.
People with type 1 diabetes who have a certain mutation in the SLC19A3 gene are less likely to develop diabetic retinopathy or diabetic nephropathy, according to a study in Diabetes. Finnish researchers used a large database of diabetes patients and their complications and found consistent results when the study was repeated on different data sets.
UK researchers analyzed data on 9,517 adults with a mean age of 52.4 and found that cytomegalovirus was positively associated with A1C and HDL and was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The findings in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism found no link between CMV and BMI but did note an association between CMV and metabolic dysfunction in nonobese adults.
Almost 1 in 10 US women smoke in the three months before they get pregnant, and only one-quarter of them quit before becoming pregnant, according to the CDC's National Vital Statistics Reports. Researchers analyzed birth certificate data from 2014 and found that nearly 21% of women who didn't quit smoking before their pregnancy were able to quit by their third trimester, while those who smoked during their entire pregnancy were able to smoke fewer cigarettes as their pregnancy progressed, from an average of 13 cigarettes daily before pregnancy to nine cigarettes daily by the third trimester.
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