Overweight boys who had above-average weight gain in adolescence were 48% more likely to develop bowel cancer as adults, compared with those who had healthy weight at ages 8 and 20, according to a Swedish study to be presented at the European Congress on Obesity. However, researchers found no increased bowel cancer risk among overweight boys without excessive weight gain during puberty.
Enhancing patient EHRs, having graphical displays of controlled-substance prescription use and implementing maps showing distances between patients, pharmacies and prescribers could help determine the possible risk areas in prescription drug monitoring programs, according to a Pew Charitable Trusts study. Researchers also found several barriers to PDMP implementation, including time constraints associated with reviewing information in patient profiles, differences in the interpretation and application of PDMP data between states, ability to monitor the extent and appropriateness of PDMP use and high costs.
A report from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities found that implementation of state Medicaid waivers requiring beneficiaries to work or participate in certain community engagement activities will cost state and federal governments tens of millions of dollars as they change eligibility systems and hire additional workers to monitor compliance and handle appeals. "Effectively, these proposals divert some state and federal resources from paying for health care to paying for new bureaucracy," the report's authors wrote, noting any savings will come from coverage losses.
A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that 31.1% of black preterm infants given sustained vitamin D supplementation had recurrent wheezing at age 12 months, compared with 41.8% of those who received diet-limited supplementation. The findings also showed that upper and lower respiratory infections were the most common adverse events and were less prevalent among those in the sustained vitamin D supplementation group.
A study of 100 simulated NICU networks of 52 infants showed as the frequency of surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased from four weeks to one week, the mean number of MRSA-colonized infants decreased from 2.9 per episode to 0.6 per episode. The study in the Journal of Hospital Infection also showed a drop in the mean duration of MRSA colonization from 307 hours to 61 hours, though researchers noted reduced availability of isolation rooms.
Researchers found that children with chronic hepatitis B and immune-tolerant characteristics who received interferon therapy followed with lamivudine had significantly better rates of undetectable serum HBV DNA, HBV surface antigen loss and HBV e-antigen seroconversion, compared with those in the control group. The findings in the Journal of Hepatology showed similar median alanine aminotransferase levels between both groups, and no serious adverse events were reported.
Researchers from the University of California at Los Angeles have developed a novel algorithm named Tree of Predictors that can forecast the survival rates of patients with heart failure who are potential heart transplant recipients. ToPs uses machine learning to collect information based on 53 data points to predict a patient's survival with or without undergoing a transplant.
In this cross-sectional study of 1,047 community-dwelling older adults, frailty and disability were associated with lower diurnal systolic blood pressure, blunted nocturnal decline of SBP, and higher nocturnal SBP regardless of conventional BP and a number of confounders. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may provide additional information over usual conventional BP measurements in the clinical evaluation of older individuals with frailty or disability, and may help explain the higher mortality risk with lower clinic BP among frail older adults observed in nonrandomized studies.
While mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia -- as opposed to ischemia brought on by conventional stress -- is a frequent phenomenon in patients with coronary artery disease, women with stable coronary artery disease report more chest pain or angina symptoms than men. These results highlight the importance of psychosocial determinants of chest pain in daily life among women with coronary artery disease; this in turn has implications for the management of women with angina.
Nursing homes (NHs) collaboration with hospices appears to improve end-of-life (EOL) care. In this retrospective cohort study, the association between the attributes of NH hospice collaborations and EOL hospitalizations among dying NH residents was examined. As expected, a higher volume of hospice use in a NH was related to lower risks of EOL hospitalizations. However, this study found that having four or more Hospice providers in a NH was actually associated with higher EOL hospitalization rate.