Japanese researchers have genetically modified an Anopheles mosquito, a carrier of malaria, to produce a natural vaccine protein in its saliva that would be introduced into a person's bloodstream whenever it bites. The prototype of the insect also carries a vaccine against Leishmania, a potentially deadly parasitic disease carried by sand flies. The method could raise ethical questions because it would entail a kind of mass vaccination without obtaining people's permission or tracking dosages, the lead researcher said.

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