Enerkem, Range Fuels, BlueFire Ethanol and Coskata are among the companies working to commercialize technologies that convert waste into biofuels or renewable chemicals. "Waste as a feedstock [for biofuels] has a number of advantages. It is logistically available and it is low in value, if not negative in value," said Esteban Chornet, co-founder and chief technology officer of Enerkem, which is developing a facility in Edmonton, Canada, to process waste into ethanol and methanol.

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