All types of clubs lost members during the economic downturn, and city clubs especially took this a sign that it was time to revamp operations and reassess member expectations. "If there is a silver lining ... it’s that it has shocked us into significantly resetting our business model, versus what otherwise may have been a slow decline, with reactions that may have come too late," said Nadia Eloufir, chief operating officer at The Houston Club in Texas. City clubs, which do not offer golf, make up about 8% of the club industry landscape.

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