Manufacturing costs for refiners would increase significantly under the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed Tier 3 sulfur-reduction rules, according to an American Petroleum Institute-commissioned study. "More importantly, EPA has yet to demonstrate any air-quality benefits from reducing sulfur in the amount proposed," said Bob Greco, group director of downstream and industry operations at API. Such standards would also raise greenhouse-gas emissions "because of the use of energy-intensive hydrotreating equipment to remove sulfur from the gasoline," he added.

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