While fraction arithmetic can be confusing for students, instructional coach David Ginsburg writes that teachers can head off some difficulties by teaching fractions conceptually -- before they are approached procedurally. He suggests ideas that allow students to visualize fractions, such as hitting three of every four free throws, or one of every two. "In other words, teachers need to develop students' understanding of fractions using manipulatives -- actual and/or virtual," Ginsburg writes.

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