An artificial, energy-generating "leaf" that previously required pure water now can use dirty water, making the device practical in remote environments. The leaf, a silicon wafer coated in a catalyst, generates electricity when exposed to water and sunlight, a process that can be interrupted by bacterial growth from dirty water. However, developer Daniel G. Nocera has found that some of the catalysts can self-heal after bacterial infiltration, which means that dirty water can now be used.

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