Research and development spending in India's pharma sector includes the cost of generic medicine development, regulatory compliance, consultancy fees, salaries and litigation, according to a review of the expenses of India's top domestic and multinational drugmakers. "Apart from staff and technician salaries, the cost of appointing a clinical research organisation for trials, reagent cost and depreciation cost of equipment form a major part of R&D expenditure for domestic as well as multinational pharma companies," an auditing firm official said.

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