A surveillance-camera system, smartphone applications and expanded underground cellphone service are among the improvements that officials say have helped improve the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's security, even before the Boston Marathon attack. MBTA employees were able to access hundreds of additional city- and state-owned cameras starting in the days before the bombing, and the increased footage helped in determining which bus routes should be avoided. "I hate to say we're used to crises and trained for them, but we are," said Randy Clarke, the MBTA's senior director of security and emergency management.

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