By starting from the user's end of things -- in the case of an incubator, a premature infant -- engineers were able to design a device that meets a crying need. The incubator for developing nations, at $100 a copy, is one example of the kind of intuitive design thinking that has also made possible such innovations as the iPhone and Wikipedia. "They’re all having one, admittedly simple, thing in common: designers gained empathy for users by putting the desires, wishes, habits and needs of humans at the center," writes Robert Rabe.

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