Duke University physicians have successfully fashioned a bioengineered vein and implanted it into the arm of a patient with end-stage renal disease in the nation's first clinical trial of its kind. The vessel was grown from donated human blood cells on a scaffold and carries no risk of rejection. "We hope this sets the groundwork for how these things can be grown, how they can incorporate into the host and how they can avoid being rejected immunologically," said Dr. Jeffrey H. Lawson. "A blood vessel is really an organ -- it's complex tissue. We start with this, and one day we may be able to engineer a liver or a kidney or an eye."