A study in the journal Medicare & Medicaid Research Review found that use of EHRs at three hospitals in Massachusetts did not consistently affect short-term ambulatory Medicaid costs. Researchers said the technology led to reduced costs at one hospital and slightly higher costs at another, but it had no effect on the third hospital. Study author Julia Adler-Milstein attributes the disparity to "differences in financial incentives and the use of decision support and health information exchange, which available evidence suggests deliver most of the financial benefit from EHRs."

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