Novel research is ongoing around the world in orthotics and prosthetics, including osseointegration studies in Sweden in which scientists implanted both a titanium screw in the patient’s residual limb to attach a prosthesis and electrodes in nerves and muscles to control it. Other studies include research in Scotland on the effect of volume loss of residual limbs on the limb-socket interface, work in the U.S. on vacuum-assisted socket suspension systems, and the development in Iceland of orthoses that address back pain caused by vetebral compression fractures.

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