In investigating the rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the U.S. population, the authors found that, from birth, the overall lifetime risks of CKD stages 3a+, 3b+, 4+ and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were 59.1%, 33.6%, 11.5% and 3.6%, respectively, indicating that reaching an eGFR below 60 mL/min per 1.73m2 is the rule rather than the exception among the elderly. Particularly notable, is that ESRD risk was 8% among African-Americans.

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