A study presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology 2019 Congress revealed that a methylation-based assay developed by researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute can detect more than 20 types of cancer, including lung, bladder and colorectal cancers, from blood samples. In tests of cell-free DNA from 3,583 blood samples, the assay had an overall specificity of 99.4% and a 76% sensitivity for aggressive cancers.
NantHealth's Omics Core technology received marketing authorization from the FDA as a whole-exome tumor-normal in vitro diagnostic. The assay measures and reports overall tumor mutational burden in cancer tissue based on somatic mutations in 468 cancer-relevant genes.
Scientists from Yale have identified a strategy to prevent the spread of malaria in mosquitoes using CRISPR technology to reduce the gene expression of the protein called mosGILT, which boosts the mosquito's resistance to malaria and also disrupts its fertility. Findings from the study were reported in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.
Data show a reduction in lipid and lipoprotein levels since the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines were published in 2013, according to a study in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The number of patients taking a statin medication increased from 41.3% in 2005 to 2006 to 49.2% in 2015 to 2016, the study found.
A study presented at the American Society of Nephrology's Kidney Week found that low doses of darbepoetin alfa resulted can minimize rates of red blood cell transfusions compared with care that included hemoglobin-based dose titration. "The results basically demonstrated that a low fixed dose of darbepoetin was every bit as effective in controlling hemoglobin levels and reducing the risk for transfusions compared to a physician adjusted dose," said Dr. Matthew Weir of the University of Maryland Hospital.
Researchers are looking to use data from the ongoing Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV trial to discover better HIV-specific cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, growth differentiation factor-15, soluble ST2 and lipopolysaccharide binding protein. The American Heart Association issued a statement urging the use of traditional heart risk calculators and HIV-related risk enhancers to develop an algorithm for evaluating atherosclerotic heart risk in HIV-positive patients.
Case Western Reserve University researchers were able to convert the gene-editing tool CRISPR into an electrochemical "universal bio-sensing" point-of-care tool that can quickly and effectively detect biomarkers for parvovirus, human papillomavirus and other viruses. "This could someday become a simple, accurate and cost-effective point-of-care device for identifying different nucleic acid viruses, such as HPV or parvo from a single droplet of a blood sample," said lead study author Yifan Dai.
Thailand's Bureau of Epidemiology reported a total of 9,085 chikungunya cases for the year as of Nov. 5, up from 3,580 reports last year. Fifty-six provinces have reported cases this year, compared with 18 last year.
Investigators from the Netherlands' Radboud University will use drones to spray rice fields in Zanzibar with a nontoxic silicone-based liquid to whether a thin film can prevent mosquito pupae and larvae from attaching themselves to the surface of water. Samples will be studied to see whether the method can control mosquito populations to help prevent the transmission of malaria.
Researchers from Japan are developing a blood test to detect a decrease in flotillin protein, an exosome marker that is a key indicator of Alzheimer's disease. "Flotillin detected in less than a drop of blood enables a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment at a stage prior to the disease," said researcher Makoto Michikawa.
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